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BBCE - The British Business Census of Entrepreneurs




The BBCE website, Atlas, UKDA deposit, and the associated research project The Drivers of entrepreneurship and small business, have been funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (grant ES/M010953), Leverhulme Trust (grant RG66385), and Isaac Newton Trust at Cambridge (research grants 17.07(d) and 18.40(g)). We are pleased to acknowledge the generous financial support of these bodies.

The BBCE is available at: Bennett, R., Smith, H., van Lieshout, C., Montebruno, P., Newton, G. (2020). British Business Census of Entrepreneurs, 1851-1911. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 8600,

The BBCE project is based at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, in the Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. The BBCE core team supported by ESRC was composed of Bob Bennett (PI), Harry Smith, Carry van Lieshout, and Piero Montebruno; and Gill Newton who worked on the 1881 Leverhulme pilot project. Other direct contributors to BBCE database and analysis supported by the ESRC and other grants were Joe Day, Dragana Radicic, Max Satchell, and Sophy Arulanantham, as well as other research assistants, co-investigators, supporters, partners and collaborators whose support we are very gratefully acknowledge, as listed on project website.

The data used derives mainly from I-CeM: Schürer, K. and Higgs, E. (2014). Integrated Census Microdata (I-CeM), 1851-1911. [data collection]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor]. SN: 7481, We are very grateful for advice from Kevin Schürer and Eddy Higgs in using I-CeM. Early WPs refer to an Campop enhanced version (Campop I-CeM v.2.3). An updated version of I-CeM at UKDS is expected to contain the enhancements used at Campop and for BBCE. We are grateful for provision of other census transcripts for 1851 and 1871 by S&N: The Genealogist.

The Atlas of Entrepreneurship was supported by ESRC grant ES/M010953. The Atlas was created by Martin Lucas-Smith, webmaster Department of Geography, who wrote the additional code required to adapt his design of the 'Atlas of Victorian Fertility Decline' (PI: A.M. Reid), funded by ESRC (grant ES/L015463/1) We are very grateful to Alice Reid, Joe Day and the populationspast team for advice and for allowing use of this resource. Carry van Lieshout, with Harry Smith, were mainly responsible for preparing the data for the Atlas using BBCE data. Code for the Atlas is open source, and can be found on the CAMPOP Github repository.

How to cite the Atlas of Entrepreneurship:

Bennett, R. J., van Lieshout, C., Smith, H., Montebruno, P. and Lucas-Smith, M. 2020. BBCE: Atlas of Entrepreneurship. . Accessed on [insert date accessed].

The maps displayed on this site for Scotland use GIS boundary files for continuous parishes (Conpar) derived from Corinne Roughley (2019a) Scotland's Parish Populations: parish boundaries 1755-1891, and Corinne Roughley (2019b) Scotland's Parish Populations: parish boundaries 1891-1911, deposited at National Records of Scotland.

The maps for England and Wales use RSD boundary files created for the 'Atlas of Victorian Fertility Decline' project (PI: A.M. Reid) funded by ESRC (ES/L015463/1); the boundary data were created by Joe Day. Citation: Day, J.D. Registration sub-district boundaries for England and Wales 1851-1911 (2016). This Day dataset was created using Satchell, A.E.M., Kitson, P.M.K., Newton, G.H., Shaw-Taylor, L., and Wrigley E.A., 1851 England and Wales census parishes, townships and places (2016). The Satchell et al. dataset is an enhanced version of Burton, N, Westwood J., and Carter P., GIS of the ancient parishes of England and Wales, 1500-1850. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive (May 2004), SN 4828. This is a GIS version of Kain, R.J.P., and Oliver, R.R., Historic parishes of England and Wales: An electronic map of boundaries before 1850 with a gazetteer and metadata. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive, May, 2001.

This site has been created by the Webmaster, Department of Geography, for the Drivers of Entrepreneurship and small business project, at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure (CAMPOP).

ESRC Isaac Newton Trust Leverhulme Trust

Department of Geography, University of Cambridge Campop